HIV P24 Ag/Ab Test, Duo Test, Combo Test at our Clinic
I have been getting a lot of question with regards to the Duo test or Combo test as it is also known as.
Let’s first get some basics right:
Duo Test = Combo Test = P24 Ag/Ab test
All these terms refer to the same thing. Basically it is a test that simultaneously tests for the HIV P24 Antigen and the HIV antibody.HIV Prevention within 72 hours of exposure (PEP) – Click Here
The HIV P24 antigen is a small piece of protein that is found on the capsule of the HIV virus. When a person is infected with HIV, these bits of protein can be found floating in the blood. The HIV P24 test is a test that detects these bits of protein. This test was first developed as a HIV screening test but rapidly ran out of favor due to the development of more advanced NAAT tests. (For more details on NAAT testing please read: http://www.drtanandpartners.com/nucleic-acid-amplification-testing-naat/)The window period for P24 testing is also very small. This test alone is only accurate for between 3 and 6 weeks post exposure. So it is a test with very limited applications unless combined with the HIV antibody test. The presence of P24 Antigens in the blood indicates a recent HIV infection.Click here for details on getting the Combo test at our Clinics
We all already know that the HIV antibody test becomes quite reliable at 4 weeks and as good as conclusive at 6 weeks. Although most health authorities still recommend a 3 months window period. So putting these 2 tests together gives you a very powerful tool to diagnose HIV infection in as little as 3 weeks. Personally I prefer to conduct the Combo test at 4 weeks because I believe that is when the level of P24 antigen peaks in the blood giving us maximum accuracy.
In our clinic, we use the SD Bioline Rapid HIV Combo Test 2.0. It is a rapid test that takes only 20 minutes for us to get results. We are also approved to conduct this test as part of the Anonymous HIV testing Program.
The test is conducted very much like the HIV antibody test. All we need is blood from a finger prick. (For more details on Anonymous HIV Testing at our clinic please read: http://www.drtanandpartners.com/anonymous-hiv-testing-at-our-clinic/)
Multicentre clinical trials have shown 100% sensitivity and more than 99% specificity.
This kit has been registered with Singapore’s Health Science Authority (HSA).
So the Combo Test has many advantages including:
1. Earlier detection of HIV infection.
2. Rapid (20 minutes)
At our clinic the Combo Test costs $150.Click here for HIV Testing FAQ
If you have any questions, visit our free online forum on sexual health, HIV and STDs.Click here for Info on STD Symptoms in Men Click here for Info on STD Symptoms in Women Click here to see the full range of our HIV/STD Services
Many women are confused when it comes to vaginal discharge.
However, often this isn’t a topic you would openly discuss with your friends or even your doctor.
You may have questions such as “ Is it normal discharge? Why does my discharge always vary in amount and colour? Should I see a doctor? When should I be worried?”. These are perfectly common and normal questions to ask as vaginal discharge varies from individual and they can be quite confusing.
Usually there is really nothing to worry about unless your vaginal discharge is associated with itching, pain or bad smell. Having vaginal discharge is normal in all women. But of course, it will be helpful to know what normal discharge is or looks like.
Before proceeding any farther, let us realize that a normal healthy vagina is never free from a type of bacteria known as ‘lactobacillus’. When balanced in amount, it is a ‘friend’ and ‘protector’ of the vagina. Its role is to protect the vagina from infection by releasing certain proteins and maintaining a vaginal pH of 4.5. Once the bacterial count decreases, vaginal pH changes and various infections of the vagina can occur. Green, yellow, gray and white, thick, cottage-cheese like discharge, usually with odor, itching and pain are signs of infection.
Normal and ovulation discharge
Clear, whitish, thin or thick odorless discharge are usually normal and shoudn’t be alarming. It can happen at any time during your menstrual cycle. This discharges means your reproductive organs are ‘cleansing’ the vagina and cervix, getting rid of dead cells and bacteria which is being transported by these discharges.
Somewhere around the 14th day of your cycle (i.e when an egg is released from your ovary -termed ovulation), you may notice clear colourless and elastic discharge resembling egg white. It is usually much more in amount than your usual vaginal discharge. This is a good sign for those who are trying to concieve as this when you are most fertile.
Sometimes, white and more watery discharge can be found after heavy physical activities, when you are sexually excited or sometimes when you feel extremely tired.
Besides having bright red blood discharge during menses, you can also have dark brown discharge which usually occurs towards the end of your menstruation or 1-2 days after menstruation. This is the leftover menstrual blood in the vagina which was not completely cleared. It is brown as dead blood cells turn brown. Sometimes, this dark brown discharge can also be seen during your mid cycle when ovulation occurs and is normal.
InfectionsClick here for details on STD Screening for Women
Bacterial vaginosis (vaginal infection caused by bacteria) is one of the most common causes of gray, foul fishy-smelling vaginal discharge. Redness of the vulva, itching and burning sensation during intercourse may accompany. Green, thick fishy-smelling discharges are commonly caused by gardnerella infections.
Gonorrheal infections are manifested by cloudy yellow discharge often accompanied by pelvic pain and frequent urination.
Trichomoniasis (a parasitic infection) gives yellowish frothy discharge with bad odor. This is usually transmitted through unprotected sex. These infections are commonly treated with over-the-counter antibiotics, most effective one being metronidazole in forms of tablets, vaginal gel/creams and suppositories.
White, cottage-cheese-like discharge often accompanied by itching is due to yeast infection known as candidiasis.
Other type of infections that you could get which could cause abnormal vaginal discharge includes chlamydia, ureaplasma and mycoplasma.
If you are pregnant, consult a doctor before taking any medications. Pay attention to your personal hygiene. Changing your panty liners frequently, keeping your feminine area cool and dry by avoiding tight clothing and linen panties may help prevent from such infections.
We must not overlook some other simple facts that may lead to changes in normal conditions of vagina. Decreased bacterial count and an increased vaginal pH more than 4.5 are the main culprits causing infection. You may not notice that using fragrant soaps, vaginal douching and frequent bubbly baths may be some of the causes. For those who are sexually active, sticking to one partner is the best prevention, as STDs are often associated with such infections. Pregnancy and menopause may sometimes lead to imbalanced vaginal conditions due to hormonal changes. It is then best to maintain a good personal hygiene.
Although less frequently red discharge or spotting is a more serious case. When this is noted, question yourself: Have you had any unprotected intercourse recently? If yes, this may be a sign of pregnancy and you might want to do a pregnancy test. Spotting during early pregnancy may mean miscarriages or threatened abortion. Some other reasons are vaginal tear and lacerations during rough intercourse, and, if you are more than 40, it may be due to cancers. This is the time when you should be worried and tell your doctor.
Need more advice?
1.) Robertson Walk (Anonymous HIV Clinic) (+65 6238 7810)
2.) Bencoolen Street (+65 6884 4119)
3.) Novena Medical Centre (+65 6397 2095)
4.) Somerset – Orchard Building (+65 6262 0762)
5.) Raffles Place – PLUS (+65 6962 7144)
6.) Holland V (+65 6235 1339)
7.) Siglap (+65 6962 2144)Click here to see the full range of our Women’s Health Services
Where to find us – here
Selected clinics are open on Saturday and Sunday.
For lady patients who prefer female doctors, we have professional certified female Doctors to attend to your medical needs.
If you have any questions, visit our free online forum on sexual health, HIV and STDs.
If not read more about HIV symptoms.
Or find out more about Anonymous HIV testing at our clinics.
Can’t wait for 3 months to find out? Find out more about Anonymous Rapid HIV Combo test at our clinics.
Call us at 6397 2095 now to book your treatment.
About Dr. Tan
Dr. Tan graduated from the National University of Singapore in 2001. His residency was in the two largest public hospitals in Singapore; Tan Tock Seng Hospital and Singapore General Hospital.
|Consultation||STD Consultation – $60.00
Anonymous HIV Rapid Test only $20.00
|Standard||HIV, Syphilis, Hepatitis B/C, Herpes Simplex Virus Type I and II||$ 200.00|
|Urine – Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea PCR, Monilia, Trichomonas, NSU, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Urine Culture, Candida||$ 280.00|
Urethritis and Vaginitis
|Vaginal Swab – Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea PCR, Monilia, Trichomonas PCR, Gardnerella PCR, Candida PCR, Group B StrepNSU, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Direct Microscopy, Candida, Vaginal swab culture||$ 345.00|
|Comprehensive (Male)||Blood – Syphilis, Hepatitis B/C, Herpes Simplex Virus Type I and IIUrine – Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea PCR, Monilia, Trichomonas, NSU, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Urine Culture, Candida||$ 390.00|
|Comprehensive (Female)||Blood – Syphilis, Hepatitis B/C, Herpes Simplex Virus Type I and IIVaginal Swab – Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea PCR, Monilia, Trichomonas PCR, Gardnerella PCR, Candida PCR, Group B StrepNSU, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Direct Microscopy, Candida, Vaginal swab culture||$ 525.00|
|Individual STD Tests|
|Determine Syphilis test||Rapid Syphilis Test||$ 50.00|
|Determine Hepatitis B Test||Rapid Hepatitis B Test||$ 50.00|
|Herpes Simplex Virus PCR||Herpes Simplex Virus Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Test||$ 190.00|
|Chlamydia and Gonoccocal PCR||Chlamydia and Gonorrhea|
|Herpes Simplex Virus Type I IgG Antibody||Herpes Type 1||$ 40.00|
|Herpes Simplex Virus Type II IgG Antibody||Herpes Type 2||$ 40.00|
|Non-Specific Urethritis (NSU) Culture||Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma||$ 118.00|
|HIV RNA/DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Test||$600
Add $100 for expedited results
|Rapid Fingerprick Blood HIV-1/2 P24 Antigen/Antibody Combo (HIV Duo Test) (4th generation!)||$ 150.00|
|Rapid Oral Saliva HIV-1/2 Antibody Test (Oraquick)||$ 50.00|
|Rapid Fingerprick Blood HIV-1/2 Antibody Test (Determine)||$ 50.00|
|PEP||$2000 – $2200|